Technique Tuesday: Linear Perspective

Welcome back to a new Technique Tuesday post! This week we’re going to be discussing something called linear perspective, also known as the Unsung Hero of Realism. Truly, this is one of the most important techniques ever to be developed in art history. It changed the game completely, but we’re really so used to seeing it these days that we don’t think about it much! So let’s take a look:

What is it?

The term “perspective” in art generally refers to the manipulation of the image so that it appears to have the depth that we can perceive with our eyes. We talked once about atmospheric perspective on this blog series, and the way that blues and cool tones in the background help to give the illusion of far distances and vast spaces. Linear perspective refers to the use of what are called “vanishing points” and the way that everything in view relates to those vanishing points, which will depend on how far those things are supposed to be from the viewer’s vantage point. Don’t worry, I’m going to use pictures soon to help explain.

Examples from art history:

Before the Renaissance–which I don’t know if I’ve ever mentioned before, but it was a pretty important time for art history– (<–kidding, I bring it up in nearly every post) artists used something known as oblique perspective, which is a fancy way of saying lack of perspective, really. Think about the drawings that little kids make, especially if there are a lot of people in them or houses or trees in the far background. Instead of figuring out precisely how all these objects relate to one another geometrically (because they are children and they’re just having awesome fun drawing), the kids just kind of spread everything in the picture around on the piece of paper, usually putting something that in reality is further “back” simply closer to the “top” of the page. For a very long time, this was the way even seasoned artists rendered their works. Let’s take a look at some pre-Renaissance works of art which, while gorgeous, are definitely before the discovery of linear perspective:

from left to right, examples of ancient Egyptian, Byzantine, ancient Chinese, and medieval German artworks

Even if you don’t know about geometry or linear perspective, these images would likely still look “off” in some way to you. It wasn’t really until the Renaissance, when super genius Filippo Brunelleschi made a nifty hole-in-a-mirror device, and then some subsequent paintings and drawings to prove his point, that artists began to understand linear perspective, and the very important notion it brings with it: foreshortening.

Foreshortening involves the visual effect that objects in our line of sight will appear differently depending on the viewer’s perspective. For an example, think about preparing dinner on your perfectly circular dinner plate, and then sitting down to eat and placing that plate in front of you. As you sit there looking at the plate, you no longer see a perfect circle (even though the plate is perfectly circular!), because of your perspective. Depending on how something is angled toward you the viewer, parts of that building or person or object will appear shorter or smaller than they really are. In the example above and on the left, even a road which is the same width down its entire length will appear to get smaller as its distance from the viewer increases.

As I mentioned, this was a game changer for artists in the Renaissance. Many of the early examples from the Renaissance showing successful use of linear perspective focus on one-point perspective, viewed straight on, but artists later expanded this knowledge to work with multiple vanishing points, and higher and lower viewer angles, as we can see here:

(above, left to right) Renaissance examples of perspective, including Leonardo da Vinci’s “The Last Supper” and Pietro Perugino’s “Christ Giving the Keys to St. Peter” (below, left to right) examples of perspective use from later in history, including Andrew Wyeth’s “Wind from the Sea,” Camille Pissarro’s “Avenue de L’Opera, Paris,” and Mary Cassatt’s “The Child’s Bath”

Examples from Principle Gallery:

Again, linear perspective, while crucially important, might not be the first thing you think of when admiring a work of art. We tend to take it for granted now that centuries of art teachers have passed the concept along, but it’s still so important to creating an effectively realistic scene. Because it is critically important in any work of art that involves things with straight lines like building and architecture, Geoffrey Johnson‘s solo exhibition (open now!) gives us a perfect segue to taking a look at the beautiful effect made when an artist accurately uses linear perspective. Let’s take a look at a few examples from the current show:

“Untitled”

“Skaters at the Museum”

“Station Interior”

“Study in Washington”

“Flatiron Evening”

To view the entirety of this absolutely spectacular and unique exhibition, stop by the gallery through the end of May, or check out Geoffrey’s page on our website by clicking here!

Technique Tuesday: A Painting Within a Painting

What is it?

Well, this week’s “technique” isn’t a difficult one to understand by any means, but it’s still plenty of fun to come across, and well worth a post! All kinds of art can be depicted in a painting– sculpture, architecture, jewelry, pottery, fashion, etc.– but today we’re going to take a look at paintings featuring paintings! (To my knowledge, there isn’t a concise term for this, but my personal vote is “paint-ception.”)

Examples from art history:

This is not a technique that’s going to go back as far as ancient times, but it does go back quite a ways and began to show up more regularly (you guessed it!) during the Italian Renaissance and in the centuries following. In fact, with the flourishing of artists and galleries in the Netherlands during the 17th century and the rise of “genre” paintings (scenes of everyday life), artists like Vermeer began to use the artwork he painted into his backgrounds to add to the message or story of the work. Let’s take a look at “The Love Letter” as an example:

Here’s a painting showing a young woman receiving a love letter, and there are two paintings visible on the wall behind her. The subjects of the paintings, it can be argued, relate to the receipt of this letter– the man walking a path in the top painting might speak of a lover who is on a journey of some kind, and the ship on a sea (often a metaphor for romantic relationships) depicting smooth sailing likely means the letter contains good news. It should be noted, however, that the artwork depicted in a painting doesn’t always have a deeper meaning; as art has become more and more a part of our lives over the years, it’s bound to show up in scenes depicting daily life! Here’s a look at a few more examples from art history (click for a better view):

(left to right) Diego Velazquez, “Las Meninas”; James Abbott McNeill Whistler, “Arrangement in Grey and Black No.1”; William Merritt Chase, “The Tenth Street Studio”; Rene Magritte, “The Human Condition”

Examples from Principle Gallery:

We’ve had many artists paint works featuring other paintings here over the years! Here’s a peek at a few:

(left to right) Lisa Noonis, “Red Couch”; Jeremy Mann, “Morning Light”; Hyseung Marriage-Song, “Studio Interior”; Philip Geiger, “Times Table”

If you happened to see Geoffrey Johnson’s fantastic solo exhibition last year, then you might remember “American Wing” and “American Wing II,” two paintings depicting figures observing paintings within a museum:

Geoffrey Johnson, “American Wing” (left) and “American Wing II” (right)

Well, we are THRILLED to be opening yet another spectacular exhibition from the unique and immensely talented Geoffrey Johnson. This exciting exhibition is set to open May 12th, but we already have a digital preview available, so feel free to email us at info@principlegallery.com if you’d like to see one! This year’s exhibition from Geoffrey includes several of his signature scenes of New York City, as well as several interior scenes, a Biblical scene, another museum scene, and to our delight, several scenes of Washington DC! Given the topic of this week’s post, let’s take a look at some of the paintings depicting paintings:

“The Impressionist”

“The Sitting Room”

“Alvin’s Porch”

In case you’re curious, the painting depicted in “The Impressionist” is “Boulevard des Italiens, Morning Sunlight” by Camille Pissarro. As for “The Sitting Room,” the work shown is loosely based on Rembrandt’s “Descent from the Cross.” And for the final one, the large landscape shown in “Alvin’s Porch?” Well, that’s a lovely piece out of Geoff’s own imagination; this painting is a two-fer! Two original works by Geoffrey Johnson in one!

Congratulations!

It’s springtime! The birds are singing, the flowers are blooming…and the Portrait Society of America is announcing its yearly award winners! We are just weeks away from the PSOA annual conference, and thrilled to share that several Principle Gallery artists have been selected as finalists or received certificates of excellence their annual International Portrait Competition!

So here’s a big congratulations to Mia Bergeron and Gavin Glakas, whose paintings (“Harborer,” and “A Look Into the Setting Sun,” respectively) were awarded Certificates of Excellence in the competition!

PSOA collage 1

(left) Mia Bergeron, “Harborer”; (right) Gavin Glakas, “A Look Into the Setting Sun”

We’d also like to extend a huge congratulations to Susan O’Neill and Casey Childs, both of whom are finalists in the competition! Below are the artworks that earned them this honor:

PSOA Collage 2

(left) Casey Childs, “Phylis Vandernaald”; (right) Susan O’Neill, “Lissome”

The Portrait Society’s annual conference is in Reston, VA this year, and will take place April 14-17, so to all the attendees, Principle Gallery offers a warm welcome to our neck of the woods!

There have been several other Principle Gallery artists making a splash lately as well! Congratulations to Valerio D’Ospina on his recent feature in Design Milk (click here to check it out!), Geoffrey Johnson on making the cover of the May American Art Collector issue (see it here!), and to Jorge Alberto, who just had a painting accepted to the 2016 International Juried Show of Contemporary Trompe l’Oeil and Still Life to be held at The John F. Peto Studio Museum in Island Heights, NJ!

We are so proud and thrilled to work with such a talented group of artists! Keep up the amazing work, everyone!

Art in Place

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There is no greater pleasure than seeing artwork from the gallery come to life in a collector’s home. A great painting activates the four walls of a space and can complete a room. The right painting can instantly infuse a room with color and energy, add warmth, create harmony, or lend drama. Here is a glimpse of some beautiful art in place showcasing some of our very talented artists.

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Riddle_w_Donley

Wilfred Moizan and Ray Donley

Riddle_w_Fitz

Kevin Fitzgerald, Jeremy Mann, and Ray Donley

  
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Bethanne Cople and Colin Fraser

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Colin Fraser

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Geoffrey Johnson

 

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Paula Rubino

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Mia Bergeron

Sometimes it is hard to envision a painting you absolutely adore in your space. Collecting art is a highly personal venture and we want you to be in love with your piece, which is why we allow our collectors to experience paintings at home before making a purchase. Our approval program ensures that you will enjoy a work of art for years to come!

Fall Fairs — USArtists & BIFAS

As the summer begins to come to a close, we’re gearing up for two exciting jaunts to Philadelphia and Boston.  Two fantastic art cities!  We’ll be heading to USArtists: American Fine Art Show & Sale from Thursday, September 22nd to Sunday, September 25th, 2011 and will be held at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts.  We love this national venue and Philadelphia’s many enthusiastic art appreciators!

Our second trip will be Boston’s South End for the Boston International Fine Art Show.  The fair is held at The Cyclorama at The Boston Center for the Arts from Thursday, November 17th to Sunday, November 20th, 2011.  This will be our fifth year at this fair and we love seeing familiar faces as well as introducing new collectors to our exciting roster of artists!